The Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Sites and Remains Act, 1958 defines an ‘ Ancient Monument ’ as follows:-
Ancient Monument means any structure, erection or monument, or any tumulus or place of interment, or any cave, rock-sculpture, inscription or monolith which is of historical, archaeological or artistic interest and which has been in existence for not less than 100 years and includes—
- Remains of an ancient monument,
- Site of an ancient monument,
- Such portion of land adjoining the site of an ancient monument as may be required for fencing or covering in or otherwise preserving such monument, a
- The means of access to, and convenient inspection of, an ancient monument;
The section 2(d) defines archaeological site and remains as follows:
Archaeological site and remains means any area which contains or is reasonably believed to contain ruins or relics of historical or archaeological importance which have been in existence for not less than one hundred years, and includes—
Protection of monuments
- Such portion of land adjoining the area as may be required for fencing or covering in or otherwise preserving it, and
- The means of access to, and convenient inspection of the area;
The Archaeological Survey of India (ASI) under the provisions of the AMASR Act, 1958 (as amended in 2010) protects monuments, sites and remains of national importance. It gives a two-months’ notice for inviting objections, if any in this regard. After the specified two-month’s period, and after scrutinizing the objections, if any, received in this regard, the ASI makes decision to bring a monument under its protection. There are at present more than 3696 ancient monuments and archaeological sites and remains of national importance. These monuments belong to different periods, ranging from the prehistoric period to the colonial period and are located in different geographical settings. They include temples, mosques, tombs, churches, cemeteries, forts, palaces, stepwells, rock-cut caves, and secular architecture as well as ancient mounds and sites which represent the remains of ancient habitation.
These monuments and sites are maintained and preserved through various Circles of the ASI spread all over the country. The Circles look after the research on these monuments and conservation activities, while the Science Branch with its headquarters at New Delhi carries out chemical preservation and the Horticulture Branch under circle offices is entrusted with the laying out gardens and environmental development.
Various Branches and Circles of the ASI carry out archaeological excavations in different parts of the country. Wing. Since independence various agencies like the Archaeological Survey of India, State Departments of Archaeology, Universities and other research organizations have conducted archaeological excavations in different parts of the country. Based on the information available in the Indian Archaeology - A Review a list of the sites, excavated during last century, is given state wise. Excavations conducted since 2000 are given in this section. Arranged state wise they include brief information on the site and important finds.
Conservation & Preservation
The Archaeological Survey of India (ASI), an attached office under the Department of Culture, Ministry of Tourism and Culture, is the nodal agency of Government of India for archaeological researches and protection of the cultural heritage of the nation. Maintenance of ancient monuments and archaeological sites and remains of national importance is the prime concern of the ASI. Besides it regulates all archaeological activities in the country as per the provisions of the Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Sites and Remains Act, 1958 (as amended in 2010). It also regulates Antiquities and Art Treasure Act, 1972 (Rules 1973).
For the maintenance of ancient monuments and archaeological sites and remains of national importance the entire country is divided into 38 Circles. The organization has a large work force of trained archaeologists, conservators, epigraphist, architects and scientists for conducting archaeological researches, documentation and maintenance of database projects through its Excavation Branches (06), Prehistory Branch, Epigraphy Branches, Science Branch, Horticulture Branch, National Mission on Monuments and Antiquities, Building Survey Project, Temple Survey Projects (02) and Underwater Archaeology Wing.
For more information please visit www.asi.nic.in